Troubled Galaxy Destroyed Dreams: Chapter 142
Mumbai-type attacks can be replicated: Obama
11 Jan 2009, 2314 hrs IST, PTI
WASHINGTON: President-elect Barack Obama on Sunday voiced fear that Mumbai-type attacks can be replicated by terrorists in other parts of
world,including the US and said his administration will focus on putting more pressure on "our major target" al-Qaida.
Asked about 26/11 terror strikes in an interview to ABC News, Obama said the "danger is always there" to have a Mumbai-type attack in an American city.
"When you see what happened in Mumbai, that potentially points to a new strategy, not simply suicide bombings but you have commandos taking over...," he said.
"I think you have to anticipate that having seen the mayhem that was created in Mumbai, that there are going to be potential copycats or other terrorist organisations that think this is something that they can replicate," Obama said.
At a Congressional hearing on Mumbai attack this week, top US intelligence and police officials had expressed similar fear and said that this makes all the more necessary to ensure that those responsible for such an attack are brought to justice, given that US cities are always on top of the hit list of al-Qaida and other terrorist groups.
"So we're going to have to be vigilant in terms of our intelligence, we're going to have to make sure that we are more effective in terms of anticipating some of these issues, and we've got to continue to put pressure on al-Qaida, which is our major target — that's something that I talked about extensively during the campaign," Obama said.
"That has to be one of our primary areas of focus when it comes to our international security."
CD exposing Mayawati's 'corruption' released
11 Jan 2009, 1808 hrs IST, PTI
NEW DELHI: Samajwadi Party general secretary Amar Singh on Sunday released a CD containing telephonic conversations of what he claimed to be Bahujan
Samaj Party (BSP) leaders asking party workers to collect money for Chief Minister Mayawati.
"The CD also has details of how Rs 20 lakh was collected by senior BSP leaders Tilak Chand Ahirwal and C P Singh and given to Delhi BSP leader Suresh Chand," Amar Singh told reporters.
He alleged that the money was then distributed among 39 party workers and local leaders, like corporators of Delhi, and they were directed to make bank drafts in the name of BSP chief Mayawati to be sent to her, he added.
He said all the drafts were issued within a span of 10 days in February 2007 and this was just one instance of how the Uttar Pradesh chief minister "converts her black money into white money".
"The CD has conversations of senior BSP leaders directing party cadres to send money to Mayawati," Singh said.
He said the CD had details of the bank drafts, including its number, the person who got it made and the name of the bank, among other things.
"We demand that the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) should scan the bank accounts of Mayawati and other BSP leaders as the money collected in the name of donations for the party is going into Mayawati's account," Singh said.
"We will also approach the Election Commission and demand that the BSP's recognition be withdrawn," he added.
There was no immediate comment from the BSP on the charges.
Bhopal Supporters Continue Battle on 24th Anniversary
By ASHFAQUE SWAPAN
indiawest.com December 18, 2008 02:21:00 PM
Nearly 25 years after the world’s worst industrial disaster ever in India’s Bhopal, the issue of compensation and justice for its survivors has refused to go away, thanks to a formidably durable grassroots movement of supporters in India and all over the world.
In the U.S., at least a dozen separate events commemorated the 24th anniversary of the disaster, according to Shana Ortman, U.S. coordinator for the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal, a loose umbrella of organizations that support the disaster survivors. Nearly 500,000 people were exposed to poisonous methyl isocyanate during a runaway chemical reaction at the Union Carbide plant in Bhopal Dec. 3, 1984.
“There are probably a dozen actions across the U.S. and Canada, as well as action in U.K. and Europe and over 80 actions in India,” Ortman told India-West. “People are going out and taking action in support of the demands of the Bhopal survivors and in commemoration of the 24 years of courage and hope in the face in their struggle.”
An 11-year-old child has joined in independently with an appeal of his own. Akash Mehta, founder of Kids for a Better Future, is requesting donations to support Bhopal victims.
“Every year, I do a birthday appeal where I ask for donations to KBF instead of gifts – it’s that time again!” Mehta said in an appeal that he sent out. “Can you help this year in my birthday appeal?
“This year I want to support the Sambhavna clinic in Bhopal which is helping to treat victims of the worst industrial accident in history…I hope you’ll think about contributing now, especially if you haven’t before!”
In addition to Mehta, numerous events were hosted all over the U.S. in support of the Bhopal disaster survivors, according to ICJB.
“There are middle school students who went to the UT Austin campus in Austin, Texas, showed a photo exhibit and raised awareness with the community on the issues on Bhopal,” Ortman told India-West.
The MIT chapter of the Association for India’s Development, in association with Amnesty International and the student group Sangam, hosted a cultural event Dec. 6 on campus in Cambridge, Mass. In addition, candlelight vigils were held in Bloomington, Ind.
According to an ICJB statement, areas near the Bhopal factory remain heavily polluted with chromium, copper, naphthol and other poisons left behind when Carbide abandoned its property following the disaster. These chemicals have leached into the local water supply with mercury levels far exceeding international safety standards.
“Second-generation disaster survivors, including many small children, are now coping with the chemical fallout,” the statement said. “There is a high incidence of babies born with cerebral palsy, cleft lips and other defects.”
Ortman said that their demands include Dow “facing trial, providing long-term health care, cleaning up the site, providing economic and social support and then for the (Indian) government to provide clean water for the communities that are still affected by the poisons from the factory and to support the call on Dow to accept liability.”
ICJB says their supporters have won several significant victories during the past year. In August, the Indian agreed to demands brought by survivors to address their continuing concerns with respect to health care, financial and social support and clean water in Bhopal. This victory came after a 500-mile march to Delhi undertaken by survivors and a 107-day protest in Delhi.
In September, supporters successfully pressured Indian officials to put a halt to a plan from Dow to build a research and development center near Pune, Maharashtra.
In the U.S., Bhopal survivors have been fighting tenaciously for decades, showing up at Dow meetings, filing lawsuits and trying to garner support from lawmakers.
While Bhopal supporters still have some ways to go, they have won significant victories along the way.
A resolution introduced at a Dow meeting asking the company to accept responsibility for the disaster at Union Carbide, which Dow bought, failed — but not before it got the support of large institutional investor TIAA Cref.
“We are always there at their AGMs, talking to their shareholders, letting them know that the liability still exists in Bhopal,” Ortman said. “It’s really hard to get those sort of resolutions passed but it’s really important to continue to bring this issue up to the shareholders and making sure that they know that the liability is there, that Dow has been hiding its liability and lying to their shareholders about it even though it’s now proving to hinder their ability to invest in India.”
In November, Bhopal activists won a major legal victory after the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reinstated plaintiffs’ claims against Union Carbide for ongoing, massive water pollution at its plant in Bhopal, reversing a lower court’s dismissal of the case.
Supporters of Bhopal survivors also won a significant symbolic victory when they got 16 U.S. House members to sign a letter addressed to Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, urging him to meet disaster survivors who had marched 500 miles from Bhopal to New Delhi.
“We urge you to personally meet the survivor groups and address their long-standing demands for justice and a life of dignity,” said the letter signed by Rep. Frank Pallone, Jr., D-N.J., and 15 other lawmakers. “More than 25,000 people in Bhopal are forced to consume water known to be laced with poisons seeping out of Union Carbide's toxic wastes in and around the infamous factory. The plant site has not been cleaned up and toxic waste continues to pollute the environment and contaminate drinking supplies in the area. . . . It is outrageous that the executives of Union Carbide and its successor, Dow Chemical, have yet to be brought to justice. . . The government should hold Union Carbide and its parent company, Dow Chemical, responsible for the disaster.”
Ortman said that supporters of the Bhopal survivors are determined to continue.
“It’s been 25 years and that’s obviously a long, long time but I think that the one thing that the campaign has and the survivors have, more than anything else, is hope and a belief that justice will prevail and that the Bhopal campaign is stronger now that it ever has been.”
She pointed out the commission that the Indian government has set up to deal with outstanding issues of the Bhopal survivors and the fact that an Indian ministry had asked Dow for $25 million for clean-up of the toxic mess as some of their achievements. “Dow is facing roadblock after roadblock in trying to invest in India and I think the time will come when they realize that owning up to Bhopal and taking care of their liabilities there is worth more to their reputation.”
India has not yet received any official communication from Pakistan on a dossier over the Mumbai terrorist attacks, External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee said here on Sunday.WAR HYPE continues in SOUTH ASIA stopping Winter to use its stings in the Heart of Blind nationalism in the US Colony! On the other hand, Rahul Gandhi waits into the wings to inject YOUTH in the IMPOTENT Political system in Indian Brahaminical Zionist Hegemony! No one else, the First person of the KILLER Trio leading the Hegemony ruling India, PRANAB, the KULIN Brahmin from the Killingfields of bengal has confirmed it! What if the RSS Projected Primeministerial candidte, the Second person of the DEAT TRIO aspires otherwise! What if the third personality of LPG NUclear Chemical Multiplex Antipeople Trio Budhdadev and the most HyPOCRITE Politically worldwide, the marxists sing on the TUNE of so called third alternative discarding the Socialists as well as the DALITs! Considering the belief in the Congress that the Nehru-Gandhi family has almost a birthright to the prime minister’s position, it is hardly surprising that Rahul Gandhi’s name is occasionally mentioned in this context. Ever since Sonia Gandhi declined to accept the post, it is her son who is deemed to be the next member of the dynasty to don the mantle. If Pranab Mukherjee’s remark that, after Rajiv Gandhi, it is Rahul who will be the next young prime minister has attracted more than the usual attention, the reason is that the external affairs minister is known to weigh his words with care. Had it been Arjun Singh or Digvijay Singh, the suspicion would have been that they were trying to curry favour with the party’s first family. But the person who is nearly always the automatic choice to head a group of ministers is in a different category.
Our people, the Majority masses destined to be KILLED this day or that day, has lost the SESIVITY in Intense STARVATION. Our DISPLACED Destroyed Brothers and sisters may not have any Shelter to cover the Winter but they, however may never DARE to CRY Winter BLUES. Enslaved as they had been thanks to religion as well as politics, deprived of enlightment, empowerment, basic needs, endowed with inherent Injustice and Inequality , the Majority Indigenous aboriginal Masses happen to be in a WORSE Status than the Wild and PET ANIMALS. We may not deserve Human rights or Civil rights! Winter BLUES may not be our DESTINY as we tend to perish in any weather untimely. We had been the SCAPEGOATS EN BLOCK!
Light helps beat the winter blues! People lacking the spare time to go outside regularly can brighten their mood by using a light-therapy lamp at home. Tanning-bed sessions are not a suitable remedy, though. Light-therapy patients must keep their eyes open while sitting in front of the lamp. Its light, Voderholzer said, has no ultraviolet radiation. This is not the case with tanning beds, where eyes must be closed to prevent damage.
For me it happens to be quite a newsbreak that some of the Affluent people do suffer from Witer Blues right in Kolkata. I would not have been that surprised if it had been experienced in colder places like New Delhi! In short, Kolkata may not offer any reasonable space for Winter Blues where it ahppens the weather of Picnic and fairs! Clothing, dressing and parties!Tropical Kolkata experiences hot and humid summers with maximum temperatures often reaching to 40 degrees during May and June, mild winters with temperatures sometimes dipping to 11 degrees and annual rainfall of 1,582mm during the monsoon. it is BOOK Fair time in Bengal. Lacs of Indigenous aboriginal as well as caste Hindu Devottees throng on babughat for their Pilgrimage to GANGASAGAR!Kolkata is warm and humid most of the year around. However, the winter months, say, from November to February are cool, sunny, dry and very pleasant. Monsoon hits Kolkata generally in the second week of June and lasts till the end of September. During this period it rains regularly. The total rainfall during the season is about 20 cm. The temperature in summer goes up to about 37 Celsius and the relative humidity up to 100%. During winter months the temperature ranges from about 10 to 20 Celsius and the relative humidity is around 50%. Light woolen clothing is necessary during winter in Kolkata. Winter in Kolkata sets in with the withdrawal of monsoon in early October. October and November evenings are very pleasant. The winter in Kolkata lasts from ...The mood in general have to be Celebrate the winter chill in the true Kolkata style At the Zoo, Maidan, ... Winter has arrived in Kolkata in full swing, and so have the few days to be ...
It may be said that the Indian Money Machine called India Incs may feel some DEEP Depression despite National Revenue and Public money being pumped into feeding its KILLER INSTINCT just because of Satyam Asatyam exposing the INFLATED RISILIENCE to attarct FDI, Share HOLDERS, Govt.allocations and FII. We know well how Reliance settled into ILLUMINITI STATUS and Satyam tried its best to surpass the TATAs! Bill Clinton favoured SATYAM Recipe thanks to HIGH TECH Ex CM chandrababu Niadu!
Meanwhile,The Government nominated noted banker Deepak Parekh, IT expert Kiran Karnik and former SEBI member C Achuthan to Satyam Computer's Board, which will meet on Monday at Hyderabad to chart out the future course of action.
"We will meet tomorrow at Hyderabad," HDFC Chairman Deepak Parekh told PTI.
Parekh along with Karnik, former Nasscom president, and Achutan was nominated to the board by the government in order to stabilise the fraud-devastated Satyam Computer Services.
Asked whether he would head the board, Parekh said, "Decision to this effect will be taken on Monday when the board meets for the first time."
The newly appointed board members would be reaching Hyderabad tonight, he added.
Earlier during the day, Corporate Affairs Minister Prem Chand Gupta said, "The board is expected to meet within 24 hours and decide (the) further course of action."
According to the order of the Company Law Board, the reconstituted board of the IT major can have a maximum of 10 members.
The Government on Friday disbanded the board of Satyam days after its founder B Ramalinga Raju admitted to a Rs 7,800-crore fraud in the books of the IT company.
Meanwhile, Satyam Computer Services today welcomed the reconstitution of the board, with the spokesperson saying, "This is a vital stabilising development for Satyam".
On demands from institutional investors like LIC and Lazard for representation on the Board, Gupta said, "All options are open in the interest of the company."
The board, he added, would have eminent personalities from finance, law, IT and administration, Gupta said. "Further appointments to the board may be made subsequently as required," he added.
It might be a FEEL of winter blues for the HEGEMONY as India called in troops to load fuel tankers and some striking employees at state oil firms went back to work on Friday, easing fears of a prolonged fuel crisis. The government dug in its heels on the third day of a stoppage that has triggered panic buying and cut natural gas and crude oil output in the energy-hungry nation, saying no further talks were possible and threatening to imprison striking workers. Company officials, who had walked out demanding better pay, returned to work at Bharat Petroleum Corp Ltd, and with Hindustan Petroleum Corp not on strike, nearly half of India's 35,000 petrol stations were likely to be operating soon. Ministers turned the heat on union leaders after long queues at the few petrol pumps with supplies jammed rush-hour traffic in major cities, and officials feared that power plants may have to shut and cooking gas shortages could trigger anger.
The LPG Mafia ruling India has destroyed our culture. it destroyed Regional Identity and indigenous culture and legacy! So, Kolakat is changing and losing its traditional look. it no longer happens to be the EXTENDED RURAL INDIAN TYPICAL BENGALI Village with Kalighat as well as Victoria Memorial in its heart! Sale of war games and toys has increased here with growing interest about violence and terrorism among kids since the terrorist attack in MUMBAI. The WAR Hype and TERROR PHOBIA has been injected into the veins of the GENERATION Next! nandigram, Singur and lalgarh Insurrection reflects STIFF Resistance against Brahaminical hegemony and LPG CULTURE turning into Marxist Genocide Ideology! Winter Blues seems to be quite aliegn! But the Emeregence of new Kolkat TOPOGRAPHY on the way of Mraxist capitalist superhighway the CREAMY Ruling Class may , of course suffer the bites and pangs of winter Blues!
We, the people have been DEPRIVED of LIGHT and SUN in this paert of World best known for its AILING SUMMER and its EPIDEMICS, Calamities as well as NATURE GODs, DIVINIE SPRITUALISM and Natural Resources in abundance. We are not so FREE politically or Economically to go for outing as the citizens of the West do. They may enjoy the DISEASE as Lifestyle and LUXURYbut, I am afraid to say that we dare not AFFORD it! We, the aboriginal Indigenous Majority Masses of South Asian geopolitics!
Light deprivation during the cold months is the cause of people's depressed mood. "Scientists believe that light controls the melatonin system and influences the serotonin system," remarked Professor Ulrich Voderholzer, chairman of the Berlin-based German Society of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN).The neurotransmitter melatonin regulates the sleep-wake cycle and the need for sleep. Serotonin, on the other hand, has a direct stimulative effect and brightens people's mood.Symptoms of winter depression typically begin in October, November or December, and abate in January.Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. Calculated astronomically, it begins on the solstice and ends on the equinox. It is the season with the shortest days and the lowest average temperatures. It has colder weather and, especially in the higher latitudes or altitudes, snow and ice. The coldest average temperatures of the season are typically experienced in January in the Northern Hemisphere and in July in the Southern Hemisphere. In India, Winter called Shishir - in the months of Magh and Phalgun English calendar months are Jan and Feb [approximately]
Winter in India is never as severe as in the western countries. Snow is unknown to us unless we go to the Himalayas or to Jammu!
But even then, our winter can be freezing cold with temperature dropping extremely low and the very poor and the homeless have a difficult time coping with winter.
The Ruling Hegemony of this south Asian Geopolitics have REVERSED the fundamental character of our TOPOGRAPHY. Since Natural resources have been SOLD OUT and gifted to Corporates, MNCs and India Incs, since URBANISATION and Indiscriminate Industrialisation kills the GREEN, since DEFORESTATION continues and agriculture has been destructed as well as our independent Production system, GLOBAL WARMING hits us most. The UNIPOLAR Imperialist United states of america has got enough OIL into its own heart and body, but it creates and manipulates SITUATION for Monoploistic AGGRESSION against OIL Rich Middle East and SUPPORTS Zionist ISRAEL allout under STRATEGIC ALLIANCE to Blackmail and BURGAIN the entire OIL world! In this process USA defends its ECOLOGY and Environment.But ECO consciou America and Europe never BEHAVE REASONABLE while the Natural resources being EXPLOITED for Global market in the best interest of the developed world!
Unfazed by then Rs 7,000 crore fraud by IT major Satyam Computers, a nine-member British Information and Communication Technology Mission will visit Kolkata this month.
"The nine-member ICT business delegation will be on a one-city business mission to Kolkata between January 12 and 15," a British Deputy High Commission official said.
The Coventry & Warwickshire Chamber of Commerce mission is keen on forging linkages between Coventry Universities Enterprises Ltd and universities and business schools in Kolkata.
It will also meet the local chambers of commerce to explore the possibility of jointly bidding for EU funded projects in the ICT space.
Bengali writer Samaresh Basu wrote a short novel SHAMBA and was awarded the most revered literary award in India, sahitya academy for the work. HE dealt with LEPROSY in the novel using the MYTH of SHAMBA, the CURSED son of Lord krishna. Shamba was Cursed to suffer Leprosy by his FATHER, the GOD VISHNU in incarnation of Krishna just because he was so beautiful that the hundreds of queens, wives of the GOD could not reisit to be SENSUOUS with the Son. Remember the story of Sons and Lovers written by DH lawrence! Sons and Lovers is the third published novel of D. H. Lawrence, taken by many to be his earliest masterpiece, tells the story of Paul Morel, a young man and budding artist. Richard Aldington explains the semi-autobiographical nature of his masterpiece:
When you have experienced Sons and Lovers you have lived through the agonies of the young Lawrence striving to win free from his old life'. Generally, it is not only considered as an evocative portrayal of working-class life in a mining community, but also an intense study of family, class and early sexual relationships.
The original 1913 edition was heavily edited by Edward Garnett who removed eighty passages, roughly a tenth of the text. The novel is dedicated to Garnett. Garnett, as the literary advisor to the publishing firm Duckworth, was an important figure in leading Lawrence further into the London literary world during the years 1911 and 1912. It was not until the 1992 Cambridge University Press edition was released that the missing text was restored.
Lawrence began working on the novel in the period of his mother's illness, and often expresses this sense of his mother's wasted life through his female protagonist Gertrude Morel. Letters written around the time of its development clearly demonstrate the admiration he felt for his mother - viewing her as a 'clever, ironical, delicately moulded woman' - and her apparently unfortunate marriage to his coal mining father, a man of 'sanguine temperament' and instability. He believed that his mother had married below her class status. Rather interestingly, Lydia Lawrence wasn't born into the middle-class. This personal family conflict experienced by Lawrence provided him with the impetus for the first half of his novel - in which both William, the older brother, and Paul Morel become increasingly contemptuous of their father - and the subsequent exploration of Paul Morel's antagonizing relationships with both his lovers, which are both invariably affected by his allegiance to his mother!
Smaresh basu related Leprosy CURE to SUN WORSHIP. The Class struggle in Lawrence reflects in depth the social as well as psychic divide transforming into deep depression. Samaresh, being a COMMITTED Marxist also deals in depth with the class consciousness of the OUT CAST Leprosy Patients and at last seeks SALVATION in KONARK. The Novel ends with a long journey to Konark.
Reading all about Winter Blues I find different dimentions of depression in the works of lawrence, basu and the first Indian prominent woman writer ASHAPURNA Devi! All of them were dealing with different sphere of CLASS as well as DEPRESSIOn.
Even a grey, overcast sky has about 10,000 lux," Kunz noted, using a standard unit of illumination. Special light-therapy lamps often have a lesser luminosity. On a bright, sunny day, natural luminosity can be as high as several hundreds of thousands of lux.
To receive the greatest benefit from sunlight, Kunz said, people should look into the sky -- though not directly at the sun. Every minute outdoors is important, he emphasized, pointing out that in the morning it helped simply to get out of the bus a stop earlier and walk the rest of the way to work.
Natural light is relatively weak indoors, even on sunny days. "Only a fraction of the light passes through the window," Hegerle said.
In India, Winter Blues is not just limited in Seasonal Affective Disorder and depression in MOODs! It is more or less rather a Class concept or Casteology or Patriarchial set up of Brahaminical society.
Samaresh basu solved the Puzzle with his journey to Sun God in KONARK. Medically he was correct as I have already written the prescription:Light helps beat the winter blues!
In the WEST, hit most by WINTER and winter Blues, Autumn is a time when nature prepares to rest, and a lot of people begin to withdraw into themselves too. They have no desire to meet with friends after work, preferring to sit lethargically in front of the television before going to bed early. And the next morning they find it hard to get up.For most people, this period of languor passes without any major effects. But a small minority suffer from out-and-out winter depression. Apart from lethargy and fatigue, the latter group often has symptoms uncharacteristic of depressive disorder.
"They have an increased need for sleep, and also for carbohydrates like chocolate," noted Dieter Kunz, a chronobiologist and head physician in the sleep-medicine department at St. Hedwig Hospital in Berlin. Normally, depression is accompanied by insomnia and loss of appetite.
In India, our people except the Recent upsurged SATYAM ASATYAM FREEsenSEX Affluent Brahaminical ruling class, we never may afford the Elite Liquor SESSION for ENERGY! Productive forces do use the Liquor generally and that happens quite indigenous. But the Winter Blues may not inflect the Productive forces as they suffer from intense Stravation all the year round specially the LPG Mafia took over all the national Political and economic affairs and policy making. No less than eighty four Corore people out of 110 corore face intense FOOD Insecurity. We, the people are unequal, persecuted, starving, ailing, undereducated, insecure and unsafe, jobless, displaced and chosen for the ultimate Killing Fields.
We may not afford WINTER BLUEs! It is once again Class and caste affiar that Neo Liberalism has suceeded to inflect the western developed disease like personality disorder and winter Blues in our Deculturised nation of sun God! Just see how the 58 thousands of SATYAM Employeees suffer from Depression and it is not because of Winter Blues!In Kunz's estimation, 3 to 5 per cent of Germany's population suffer from winter depression. And another 25 per cent are conscious of mood changes. may we dare to imagine to afford such LUXURY?
Our women folk, the bulk declared enslaved SHUDRAS in a Patriarchial society ruled by the Holy Lawas of manusmriti however had been FEELING the pangs of Winter Blues as their world had been closed into the KITCHEN, a cold and unhealthy place for thousands and thousands years. We came to know the psyche of our mothers and sisters from SATAYWATI, SUBARNOLATA and BAKUL, all the protagonists of ASHAPURNA TRILOGY PRATHAM PRATSHRUTI! She recieved Jnanpith Award for thsi work.The Jnanpith Award is a literary award in India. Along with the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship, it is one of the two most prestigious literary honours in the country. It is presented by the Bharatiya Jnanpith, a trust founded by the Sahu Jain family, the publishers of the The Times of India newspaper.The feminist theme has been present in Bengali fiction almost since the earliest day. Niruma Devi, Anurupa Devi, Shailabala, Jyotirmoyee Devi and other women writers have set forth the tragic plight, as well as struggles and success of Bengali women. Perhaps the high point of this tradition is represented by Ashapurna Devi in her Prothom Protiristi (First Promise) trilogy. Nabanita Deb Sen, Esha De, Suchitra Bhattacharya and many others have proved worthy successors. Fantasy, science fiction, mystery stories, fiction for children, in no field can we say that Bengali fiction has lagged behind. Experiments with style and technique have likewise been continuous.First PROMISE:This book is a translation of Ashapurna Devi's award winning novel Pratham Pratisruti. The novel captures the social and cultural changes that had swept through Bengal in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. I was completely captivated by the delightful eight year old Satyabati, the heroine of this novel. The translation, which took four years, offered me the rare opportunity of synthesizing my archival experience and revisiting the past.Published by Orient Longman, New Delhi, The First Promise was released at the Kolkata Book Fair in February 2004..Pratham Pratishruti(First Promise) by Ashapurna Devi--The first book of a trilogy which seeks to rewrite Bengali women's history beginning from nineteenth century.
Ashapoorna Devi, also Ashapurna Debi or Asha Purna Devi, is a prominent bengali Writer.The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal in Indian subcontinent with a history going back more than two mille... She was born in 1909. She has been widely honoured with a number of prizes and awards. She was awarded the Padma Shri.Padma Shri is an award given by the Government of India generally to Indian citizens to recognize their distinguished contri...
by the Government of IndiaGovernment of India Summary
The Government of India, officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was...
in 1976; D.Litt by the Universities of Jabalpur, Rabindra Bharati, Burdwan and Jadavpur. Vishwa Bharati University honoured her with Deshikottama in 1989. For her contribution as a novelist and short story writer, the Sahitya AkademiSahitya Akademi
The Sahitya Akademi is an Indian organisation dedicated to the promotion of literature in the languages of India....
conferred its highest honour, the Fellowship, in 1994. She died in 1995.
Ashapoorna Devi , also Ashapurna Debi or Asha Purna Devi, is a prominent Bengali novelist and poet. She was born in 1909. She has been widely honoured with a number of prizes and awards. She was awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India in 1976; D.Litt by the Universities of Jabalpur, Rabindra Bharati, Burdwan and Jadavpur. Vishwa Bharati University honoured her with Deshikottama in 1989. For her contribution as a novelist and short story writer, the Sahitya Akademi conferred its highest honour, the Fellowship, in 1994. She died in 1995.
The Telegraph reports:
Her house stands out in the congested Kanunga Park in Garia. The first floor has been let out to a Bata store. Ask anyone in the locality and they promptly point to the second floor of the off-white building where Ashapurna Devi lived with her family since 1970. It was in the mezzanine floor of this house that the author wrote many of her works of fiction, including Neel Parda and Bokul Kotha. Today that room lies in a sorry state just as many of her books have lost their sheen for GenNext.
As her daughter-in-law Nupur Gupta — the only family member living there — ushers you in, a world of memories unfolds. Photographs and mementoes all over the drawing room remind you of the heights the author had scaled despite not getting a formal schooling. Her Pratham Pratisruti and Subarnalata are among the boldest portraits in Indian literature of women pitched against a narrow, rigid, patriarchal society, but how many remember Satyabati of Pratham Pratisruti or her daughter Subarnalata now?
Not many know that 2008 is Ashapurna’s centennial year either. She was born in 1909. “We expected the state government to give Ashapurna Devi some recognition in her centenary year. They have done nothing. Surprisingly, not many writers and educationists have come forward to pay her a tribute either. Public memory is indeed short-lived,” says Gupta.
As the city stood witness to a pitched battle between the state government and environmentalists over Book Fair, a small group of writers and educationists mourned the loss of readers of Bengali literature. While English bedtime tales are slowly replacing Thakurmar Jhuli, Khirer Putul and Tuntunir Golpo, Pottermania is reigning over Podi Pishir Bormi Baksho or Raj Kahini and management books and the Chicken Soup series are disappearing fast from the shelves, the memory of older, redoubtable Bengali writers is fading away. The derelict houses of most writers and artists of yesteryear show how indifferent the state government is to literary and artistic heritage
What does it mean Winter Blues for GAZA and PALESTINE? What does it mean for we, the wretched Indian Masses to be killed otherwise? US trade mission, which will include representatives of General Electric, Westinghouse and USEC Inc, will visit India this week to hold talks with the government on how to leverage spinoffs from the Indo-US civil nuclear agreement, Shyam Saran, the prime minister’s special envoy on the Indo-US nuclear deal, has said.Although the signing of the Indo-US deal on October 10, 2008, will remove the technology-denial regimes for nuclear material as well as dual-use technologies and open a plethora of opportunities for private players, it is too early to comment if foreign companies can set up nuclear power plants, according to Saran.He added the government was cautious in this regard since India’s civilian and nuclear programmes were enmeshed. Under the separation plan that is part of the Indo-US nuclear deal, the separation will be completed by 2014.However, in the interim, the private sector can participate in collaborative ventures with Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL). However, the government did not have a “closed mind” on private sector participation, he added.Saran, speaking at the Fifth Indo-US Economic Summit in New Delhi, said with the path being cleared for India to freely access the international nuclear market, it could scale up nuclear power production to 20,000 Mw by 2020 and can reach 60,000 Mw by 2030.
Mraxist Brahaminical hegemony may suffer from fresh winter Blues as “Martyr’s mother” Firoza Bibi wins Nandigram assembly seat!Popular among Nandigram people as Shahider Ma or the Martyr’s Mother, Firoza Bibi, a 60-year-old homemaker, has won the Nandigram Assembly bypoll with the highest margin since the constituency first voted in 1951.However, the LEFT aspires to have DECISIVE role in Indian Ruling Hegemony. The MASTERMIND in Indiscriminate land acquisition for REALTY purpose on the name of Development and Industrialisation, West Bengal Industry Minister Nirupam sen is not ASHAMED to say in KOCHI that the Left will have KEY ROLE in the CENTRE after the Elections!The three-day central committee meeting of the CPM in KOCHI had to chalk out the party’s strategy for fighting the elections.Nirupam Sen, who was in Kochi to attend the meeting, in an interview to `Express’ said that the party would have to fight hard to retain its poll share in West Bengal in the coming general elections.
Nirupam SEN is VERY Hopeful to have GREEN SIGNAL for NAYACHAR Chemical HUB from the CENTRE despite the NUKE OPERA and Marxist betrayal to UPA. Mind you, the marxists Brahamins had to shift the Venue to Nayachar from from Nandigram facing STIFF RESISTANCE resultant in DEFEAT for the Marxists! SEN told STAR ANAND to pursue the DEVELOPMENT agenda despite SINGUR setback!
``The extreme right and the extreme left have decided to join hands against the Left, especially against the CPM. A formal alliance has not been shaped yet, but once such an alliance materialises, it will be difficult for the party,’’ he said in KOCHI.But in the last panchayat elections, the party could manage to get more than 50 percent of votes even after having some differences among the Left parties over the issues like the land acquisition, industrial projects etc, he said.
But, in the Lok Sabha elections, the Left parties will sort out the issues and remain united. Nandigram will hardly be a poll issue in Bengal, he said.
The poll outcome will give birth to a hung Lok Sabha and the third front led by the Left will then have an important role. Parties like the BSP will fare better in North Indian states. The Left parties will have a say in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal and Tripura, he said.
``The general conviction that the policies of the Left could help cushion the shock of global economic recession will be a positive factor for us,’’ he said.
``We had warned the UPA Government.
But our advice fell on deaf ears,’’said Sen. `Defeat the BJP and Reject the Congress’, will be our stand, he said.
The Left has its own alternative for beating the meltdown. More money should be pumped into the infrastructure and agriculture sector.
The government should ask the banks to lend more loans to farmers, especially to the marginalised. The PSUs should be vitalised. Issues of the deprived and marginalised classes like dalits and minorities should get more attention, Sen said.
Is this the SYMPTOM of Winter Blues?
Trinamul Congress candidate Firoza Bibi defeated Paramananda Bharati of CPI (supported by Left Front that includes ruling CPM) by 39,549 votes in the by-election held on January 5, whose result was declared on January 9.
During the violent Nandigram movement in 2007 Bibi’s youngest son Sheikh Imdadul was killed in police firing on March 14, 2007.
“I have lost my son - Raja (Imdadul’s nick name). His character was similar to a king and he sacrificed his life during the fight. This win is dedicated to my son’s sacrifice and others who also sacrificed their lives. With this verdict, I have received a chance to live with many sons and I will be vocal in the Assembly to resolve the false cases filed against many people in Nandigram in district by the police” she told media.
It is widely said that the police had targeted Raja because he was trying to carry the injured away from the battle zone.
The government had tried to acquire farmland for a chemical hub in the area early 2007 and Nandigram, located about 170 km southeast of Kolkata, at the meeting point of the Hooghly and the Haldi Rivers, remained theatre of political violence all through 2007. The farmers resisted their land acquisition. After much violence involving police and Communist cadres, which saw several deaths in the Muslim dominated area the government had to shift the project from there.
The Nandigram seat fell vacant after sitting CPI MLA Sheikh Mohammed Ilyas resigned following disclosure, in a sting operation, of his involvement in corrupt practices.
Besides Nandigram in East Midnapore, the bypoll was also held for Para and Sujapur assembly seats in Purulia and Malda districts respectively. While Mausam Noor of Congress won Sujapur Minu Bauri of CPM won Para seat.
We make so much HUE and cry about environment, ecology and global warming! On the other hand, it is claimed that Panipat’s petro-chem hub has to benefit polymer units in Northern states!Panipat, the ancient and historical city of Haryana, is all set to welcome the most prestigious project to become the petro chemical hub in North India. Haryana State Industrial and Infrastructure Development Corporation (HSIIDC) along with Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL) are working jointly on this proposal.It is expected that with the completion of this project downstream industries, especially polymer-based units in the northern states, will be benefited the most. Sources HSIIDC informed Fibre2fashion.com that a total of 4,000 acres of land is required for this project. However till now only 900 acres have been acquired. Officials of HSIIDC are still working on issues like ownership rights, development model to adopt and procedure to follow. Total investment required for the project is Rs35 billion. The HSIIDC further informed that currently IOCL is associated with them, however, in future they may get associated with any other organization depending on the progress of the project.The new complex is likely to attract an investment of more than Rs150 billion. Besides providing employment to about 15,000 persons directly, it will also generate indirect job opportunities through ancillary units.
So called Nobel laureate the most valuable brahaminical ICON of indian Intelligentsia advocates LPG Mafia saying acquisition of land by the government should be the last recourse to build industry.Ironically ,he was critical of the way land was acquired in Singur but came out in support of the Nano project. “There is no reason not to purchase land directly if you believe in market economy,” he told an interactive session attended by chief minister Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee and industries minister Nirupam Sen.The industry, he said, should first try buying land from owners directly. He said purchasing land directly from Singur farmers shouldn’t have been a problem for the Tatas at a time they were buying British Steel (Corus).After the project left Bengal, the government has allowed industry to acquire land directly, changing its earlier stand to acquire land and lease it to companies. It hasn’t produced the desired results, though, as land holdings are highly fragmented in the state.
Finance minister Asim Dasgupta, who was moderating the session, said the Tatas would have faced problems in acquiring land on their own.
Sen, however, stressed the importance of security, which he said had to be ensured by the government and the Opposition. “Once it was decided that (a) factory will come up on the land in Singur, it was not right to go back on it.”Sen defended the right to criticism in a democracy but warned it shouldn’t be stretched so far that it harmed industry and Bengal eventually. “Industry will want to remain open and operate. The problem is if a large political party says production has to stop, production will stop here, maybe by a bandh also.”Sen called for ushering in social change to maintain continuity or paramparya, saying no business house would be interested in investing in Bengal unless that was ensured.
Economist Pranab Bardhan, who believes land should be taken for industry only after paying “adequate compensation to farmers”, proposed that the process be carried out by an independent body. Professor Amiya Bagchi said people must be convinced about land acquisition first, while sociologist Partha Chattopadhyay underscored the importance of the unorganised sector in Bengal’s progress.
Meanwhile,Chief Minister Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee challenged the Opposition on last Sunday by saying that the land acquired for the small car project in Singur will only be used for industrial purposes. Addressing the 22nd West Bengal State Electricity Board (WBSEB) employees’ union state conference at Barasat, Bhattacharjee accused the Opposition of “creating all sorts of problems for the government when it tries to undertake any kind of development work for which land acquisition is required”.
“They are a harmful power. In North 24 Parganas, they are preventing us from starting work on the widening of National Highway 34. Like Singur, the Trinamool Congress is causing disruptions here too. It was because of them that the Tata Motors factory could not come up. Now they are trying to create more trouble by demanding that the government returns all the acquired land,” he added. Bhattacharjee, however, claimed all was not lost. “Some good news is coming up. I just want to say that only factories can come up on the Singur land, which has been acquired for industry. We will make it happen,” he said.
The Bengal government today handed over around 750 acres to Jai Balaji Group for its proposed steel plant at Raghunathpur in Purulia.
Jai Balaji is the third company that has promised to start work on its proposed project in the state despite problems over land acquisition and meltdown in the steel sector. Sajjan Jindal’s JSW Bengal and home-grown Shyam Sel are the other two companies that have begun groundwork for their projects.The company will invest Rs 4,000 crore in the next three years in the first phase, comprising a 2-million-tonne (mt) steel plant, 400MW power unit and 1mt cement facility.
Bengal industry minister Nirupam Sen praised Jai Balaji’s move in the current economic environment. “I am happy that all our investors are still committed to their respective projects,” Sen said. He warned that the spate of investment proposals would come down in 2009. “It will be wrong to say we will remain insulated from the global meltdown. Bengal may not see the upswing witnessed in the last three years,” he said.
Stressing that development projects should not be an issue of political confrontation, Speaker Somnath Chatterjee on Wednesday termed the withdrawal of the Nano car plant from Singur as a “sad” episode.
Addressing the concluding ceremony of the 22nd Industrial Trade Fair at Milan Mela ground, Chatterjee said: “On the issue of all round development there should be no conflict, no hesitation and no competition.” He said that land acquisition is not unique to Bengal and it has happened across the country.
“There is a propaganda that there is no scope of industrialisation in West Bengal following the withdrawal of the Nano project,” he said while sharing the dais with the state Industry Minister Nirupam Sen. “I am totally out of the political scenario and will remain out of it. But development should not be a matter of confrontation.”
The Speaker also put his weight behind the organising of fairs at Kolkata Maidan. “There is a lot of talks going on about pollution. Of the 365 days in a year, if fairs are held for 100 days there should be no opposition to it.”
Insisting that he is not criticising the judiciary, he also questioned why books should not be sold at the Maidan.
According to Somnath, the policy of confrontation and fractured policies have made the parliamentary democracy weak. “I got the opportunity to enter Parliament in 1971, but looking back in 2008 I feel sad that the respect once the parliamentarians received is missing now,” he added.
First aerotropolis in India to come up in West Bengal’s Durgapur!
New Delhi, Jan 11: The first airport city project of the country would come up near Durgapur in West Bengal by 2011 as the process of acquiring 2,363 acres of land has begun with the issuance of a notification to this effect recently.
The aerotropolis or an airport city, proposed to come up at the Andal-Faridpur block of Bardhaman district, would have an airport and related infrastructure spread over 650 acres, an IT and industrial park on about 550 acres, a housing project on 650 acres and a hospital, schools, community shopping areas and other structures on another 450 acres.
Despite the stiff resistance to land acquisition in Singur and Nandigram affecting industrial projects in the state, the process of land acquisition for the aerotropolis was initiated by the Bengal government by issuing a notification a few weeks ago.
"The notification has been issued... There is no resistance from the people as their dependence on land and agriculture is far less than in other parts of the state. Most of the land here is barren," Bengal Aerotropolis Projects Ltd (BAPL) Director Raj Shekhar Agrawal said here.
While the total project cost would be about Rs 10,000 crore, BAPL and its partners would be putting in about Rs 600 crore in the first phase in which the airport and related infrastructure would be developed by 2011, he said.
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COATINGS MCP-2107 A GLOBAL STRATEGIC BUSINESS REPORT
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Fourth-quarter earnings 'disaster' sets 2009 up for mild recovery
Fourth-quarter earnings 'disaster' sets 2009 up for mild recovery
2009 Honda Fit: Frugal fun with a model makeover
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Citi in talks to sell brokerage business, reports say
NEW YORK, Dec 16, 2008 (BUSINESS WIRE) -- Reportlinker
ANALYSIS-Victory elusive for both Israel and Hamas
Reuters - 36 minutes ago
By Luke Baker JERUSALEM, Jan 11 (Reuters) - When the firing eventually stops in the Gaza Strip, the question of "who won?" will hang heavily over the death and destruction.
Protests in Lebanon, Syria against Gaza offensive The Associated Press
Israeli Troops Push Into Gaza City in Day of Fierce Fighting New York Times
BBC News - AFP - Bloomberg - Sify
all 18,395 news articles » ?????? ??? »
SamayLive - 1 hour ago
New Delhi, Jan 11: The Samajwadi Party continued to speak in different voices with its leader Amar Singh today renewing a threat to review support to the UPA if it does not take firm action against Pakistan by January 14, a day after the party chief ...
Alliance with SP still possible: Khurshid Hindu
Sanjay Dutt's producer's worried Times of India
IBNLive.com - BBC News - Hindustan Times - Calcutta Telegraph
all 146 news articles » ?????? ??? »
Long cold nights and dull dark days - the British winter isn't fun for anyone. Travelling to and from work in the dark and spending all day cooped up in an artificially lit office can send some people into a downwards spiral of exhaustion, depression and anxiety. These symptoms, often referred to as Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) are thought to be a direct result of a lack of sunlight.
Source: Health News from Medical News Today
Yvette Martinez Updated: 1/8/2009 8:30:02 PM Posted: 1/8/2009 6:55:49 PM
Clueless govt goes on ‘low-key’ ride
You are constantly referring only to the 38,000 registered autos. What about the tens of thousands of unregistered autos?
First things first. How many unregistered autos are there on the streets of Calcutta, The Telegraph asked a transport official at Writers’ Buildings 24 hours after the court lashing.
2009-01-11 [11:55:07 hrs]
Indicating stricter measures to check illegal immigration from Bangladesh, Home Minister P Chidambaram has said nationals from that country have "no business" to be in India without permission and that there is "no reason" why a large number of visas are being issued to them every month.
Chidambaram, who has been taking a close look at the security set up in the wake of the Mumbai terror attacks, voiced concern over the "very ineffective" monitoring system to check whether a Bangladeshi coming to India has returned to his country after expiry of his visa or stayed on.
Truckers’ strike enters 7th day
11 Jan, 2009 [11:54 AM]
With the impasse between the transporters and government continuing, the truckers' strike entered the seventh day on Sunday, even as the Centre has called a meeting....Read More
Dawood's sister cannot be issued a passport, Centre tells HC
11 Jan, 2009 [11:53 AM]
The Centre has justified its move to deny a passport to underworld don Dawood Ibrahim's sister, Haseena Ibrahim Parker, by claiming before the Delhi High Court....Read More
Illicit opium cultivation is main source of income for Naxals
11 Jan, 2009 [11:52 AM]
Ever wondered how the Naxals get the money to procure latest arms and sustain their growing cadre? The answer lies in the obscure world of illicit....Read More
Somali pirates release seven Indians from hijacked vessel
11 Jan, 2009 [10:53 AM]
Seven Indians and the hijacked vessel, MV Delight, have been released by the pirates and they are safe, Directorate General of Shipping said in Mumbai on....Read More
Seven Indians released safely from hijacked vessel MV Delight
11 Jan, 2009 [10:51 AM]
Seven Indians and the hijacked vessel, MV Delight, have been released by the pirates and they are safe, Directorate General of Shipping said here on Saturday.....Read More
Rahul Gandhi as PM candidate was general comment: Pranab
11 Jan, 2009 [10:14 AM]
External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee on Saturday said his statement about Congress MP Rahul Gandhi being a prime ministerial candidate was a general remark, though the....Read More
Gujrat likely to sign series of MoUs in renewable energy sector
11 Jan 2009, 2320 hrs IST, PTI
the Vibrant Gujarat Global Investors Summit(VGGIS)-2009, state officials said on Sunday.
AHMEDABAD: The State government, projecting Gujarat as the best destination for investment, on Sunday unveiled a mega exhibition, showcasing two of
its most siginficant achievements, the Nano car and the Bomabardier metro train coach projects.
commission from both. But now the things have changed. Traders are becoming manufacturers."
IBNLive.com - 30 minutes ago
THE POINT ABOUT PAKISTAN: US Ambassador David Mulford says terrorist attacks on Mumbai had Pakistani link. ibnlive.com is on mobile now.
Mumbai dossier: Pakistan yet to respond, says Pranab Hindu
An Indian version of Gaza Livemint
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Aljazeera.net - 1 hour ago
By Mark LeVine One by one the justifications given by Israel for its latest war in Gaza are unravelling. The argument that this is a purely defensive war, launched only after Hamas broke a six-month ceasefire has been challenged, not just by observers ...
Major cities stage fresh protests over Gaza AFP
Israel and Hamas Vow to Press on With Fighting in Gaza Voice of America
Reuters - Xinhua - Times Online - New York Times
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In past two months, East Tennesseans have seen about 13 days of sunshine. For some people, a string of cloudy days can lead to a feeling of depression.
Front" displacing the Congress and BJP at the centre had failed miserably, KPCC President Ramesh Chennithala claimed on Sunday.
Dow sees India sales driven by specialty productsReuters, Wednesday January 7 2009 * Sees 2008 sales in India up 25 pct from a year ago
* Sees 2008 sales in India of about 25 billion rupees
By Euan Rocha
MUMBAI, Jan 7 (Reuters) - Dow Chemical Co expects its portfolio of specialty chemical products to drive its growth in India and estimates that its 2008 annual sales in the country rose 25 percent from a year ago, a company official said on Wednesday.
Ramesh Ramachandran, head of Dow's operations in India said the company currently expects 2008 sales of about 25 billion rupees, or about $512 million. In 2007 the company posted sales in the country of 20 billion rupees, or about $410 million.
Dow, the largest U.S. chemical maker, has operated in India for more than 50 years and markets chemicals used in paints, pharmaceuticals, automobiles, cosmetics and other products.
"Across the gamut the specialty portfolio has provided the impetus for growth," said Ramachandran in an interview with Reuters.
Midland, Michigan-based Dow is currently targeting sales of $1 billion in India by 2010 and it is confident of achieving sales growth despite the global economic slowdown.
Dow and other chemical companies are struggling because of a recession in most developed countries and a sharp slowdown in many emerging economies.
The company said last month it would close 20 facilities, divest several businesses and cut 5,000 jobs to cope with the slump.
If anything, the global economic slowdown has reinforced the notion that geographic diversification, needs to be a critical component of the strategy, said Ramachandran.
JOINT VENTURE STRATEGY
The chemical maker is currently in discussions with potential joint venture partners in India, said Ramachandran.
"There are areas in India where we may not have the market expertise, but have the technology and those are the areas that we would look into a joint venture model," he said.
Last year, the company signed a 50:50 joint venture agreement with Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Ltd to set-up a manufacturing facility in Gujarat at a total cost of about $250 million.
The facility, which is due to be operational by 2011, will produce chloromethanes, which are used as a solvent in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products and other chemical processing applications.
Dow is following a joint venture strategy to grow its highly cyclical and low margin commodity chemicals business, while investing heavily in more profitable specialty chemical products.
However, this strategy was partially derailed last month when Kuwait scrapped a deal to form a $17.4 billion petrochemical joint venture with Dow, potentially upsetting Dow's plan to buy specialty chemical maker Rohm & Haas Co. Dow planned to use the proceeds from the Kuwaiti joint venture to pay down debt that would have been used for the Rohm & Haas Co acquisition. [ID:nLS308821]
BHOPAL TRAGEDY WEIGHS
Despite, strong sales growth, Dow also has faced a great deal of opposition in India.
Many Indians link Dow with the catastrophic industrial accident, which occurred in Bhopal in central India in 1984, when tonnes of toxic gas leaked from a pesticide plant owned at the time by Union Carbide.
Nearly 3,800 people died soon after exposure to the gas, while tens of thousands of others fell ill. Union Carbide later became a subsidiary of Dow. There is still argument over who should clean up the site, which remains polluted.
Dow's plans to construct a $100 million research and development center about 200 km (120 miles) from Mumbai were put on hold after protesters, worried about industrial pollution, set fire to the construction site in July.
"To find that a science and technology investment can run into activism issues sends a very dangerous signal," said Ramachandran.
"Growth in India purely by building roads and bridges is not sustainable. You can build the infrastructure, you can build airports, but these are all enablers -- at the end of the day growth in the country is going to come because there is innovation here." ($1= 48.8 rupees) (Reporting by Euan Rocha; editing by Carol Bishopric)
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Posted: Dec 30, 2008 at 0335 hrs IST
Pune Chief Minister Ashok Chavan’s promise to end the Dow Chemical imbroglio by year-end seems unlikely to be fulfilled. He made the commitment on the floor of the House during the Nagpur session.
Last week, he told The Indian Express he would stand by the commitment and end the row before New Year starts.
Four SEZs on 2,100 hectares will bring in Rs 8,308 crore as investment and create 60,000 new jobs, putting Pune firmly ahead of the rest of the state in the SEZ investment race. Eighteen more SEZ proposals are in pipeline for Pune. Two SEZs will be in the IT sector and two multi-product ones. Both IT SEZs feature new entrants — Cavalcade Properties and Skyzone — while the multi-product ones involve players already into SEZs — D S Kulkarni and Bharat Forge.
- India-US war games to draw on lessons in urban warfare
New Delhi, Jan. 10: The Indian and US armies are planning a new series of joint exercises, a set of which will draw on lessons in urban warfare in the wake of the November attack by terrorists in Mumbai.
Navin Singh Khadka
(Source: BBC World Service. )
and the disease is the capitalist development model.”
— Evo Morales, president of Bolivia, September 2007
Winter in kolkata - Pujo, Pithey, Party!!!
Ah, the onset of winter in Kolkata. Due to global warming and pollution in general, the climate has been screwed up big time and the proper seasonal cycle has gone for a toss.
Different types of Bhaja; Ghee Bhaat; Pulao; Luchi; Chingri machher malai curry;Daab Chingri, Chitol Muittha; Tangra; Bhetki; Pabda; Phulkopi; Poneer; Doi Machh; Mangsho Kosha; Khichuri; Chutney; Payesh; rosogolla; Pantua; Sondesh; - you name it, they serve it!!! For those who have the money, anyways. I, for one, simply love it when all of that is home cooked, 'cept for the Mishtis obviously, you just can't make it like that at home! It takes skills honed for generations!
Then we have the snacks - Hot kati Roll makes the best rolls, agreed. But since park street is a staple all year round EXCEPT Pujo, let me tell you what you already know - Parama Roll Centre at Gariahat is the best you can get!!! It can be found on the same stretch as and the right before the Ballygunje AC Market. YUMM!!!
Then there are the cold mornings and lazy afternoons! And the hazy evenings over steaming hot, freshly brewed natural coffee or good tea. Cozy-ing up is the main idea and if you are single, like I was last time, simply cozy up and play your favourite music. Pull on those cover alls and go out for walks in the haze, with your music plugged into you head! Trust me on this one, nothign beats solitary walks in the evenings and/or mornings in winter.
And how can it all stop there! It is just the beginning! Winter is for Christmas and cakes from Nahoums! Ah those fruit cakes, rich with extra goodness! And those soups for dinner and breakfast! Cheese to go with the bread with the soup. May the chickens never become extinct! And here I go, sounding all evil. I am sorry, I am talking as a die hard gastronomist now! Also, new years celebrations are simply there for those long detox sessions for the next three weeks :P ! Cheers to life in Kolkata, especially october onwards till the year ending! And Cheers to being a bengali through it all! The others are fun too, but I like the way we do things!
Conjured by the lost_poet around 10/15/2007 12:31:00 AM
B. Ramalinga Raju (face hidden) leaves after meeting the magistrate in Hyderabad on Saturday. (Uday Kumar Srichakra)
Hyderabad, Jan. 10: The first question stung like a bullet. “Mr Ramalinga Raju, please tell us why you cheated.”
If a bout of the "winter blues" is brief and easily remedied by a trip to the gym or a night out with friends, then it is likely that this melancholy will pass.
Human Security on the Global Commons
The consequences of what we do in the present must lead to an improved quality of life.
Tightening food supplies and rising food demand are now resulting from:
* poor harvests;
* lack of fresh water and fertile soil;
* rising prices for seeds and fertilizer;
* the use of food crops for bio-fuels;
* increases in the land needed for meat and dairy production (displacing grain production for people);
* rising oil and transportation prices;
* trade-distorting subsidies on agriculture; and
* food export restrictions.
* a lack of water for drinking and irrigation;
* a decline in agricultural production;
* increased resource scarcity;
* loss of supportive wildlife;
* widespread disease from mosquitoes and other pests;
* declining health;
* economic losses caused by hurricanes, tornadoes and cyclones;
* volatility in economic output and trade; and
* increasing poverty.
That is why monetary security is vital now for everyone, especially the poor. Our purchasing power, which directly affects the ability to feed our families, pay our bills, save and invest, is an essential social entitlement. The right to stable currency rates ?? as an expression of our collective cultural values, personal livelihood and self-worth ?? is particularly important as we enter this uncertain period of adjustment.
1) that states have not relinquished their sovereignty to cooperate with one another more effectively, and market-driven solutions have proven incapable of addressing the systemic problems that transcend national borders;
2) that a new balance between the common interests of states, markets and people is essential to economic and social development, environmental harmony and peace;
3) that all matters bearing on the global commons must soon be linked together in one multilateral agenda and discussed by a diverse group of representatives from every sector ?? government, business and civil society;
4) that these representatives should launch an immediate global action program ensuring the end of poverty, adequate food supplies, fair distribution of resources and commodities, a clean environment, protection of migrants and refugees, reliable and affordable energy, stable purchasing power and a climate of peace; and
5) that this common action plan must also be seen as a tentative step toward geo-political realignment and global economic adjustment, leading to a greater degree of international unity and the creation of inclusive global governance.
Winter Blues Study Underway in Vermont
Exercise as much as possible
Don't indulge in foods loaded in carbohydrates
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Seasonal affective disorder
Classification and external resources
Light therapy lamp for Seasonal Affective Disorder
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), also known as winter depression or winter blues, is a mood disorder in which people who have normal mental health throughout most of the year experience depressive symptoms in the winter or, less frequently, in the summer, repeatedly, year after year. The US National Library of Medicine notes that "some people experience a serious mood change when the seasons change. They may sleep too much, have little energy, and crave sweets and starchy foods. They may also feel depressed. Though symptoms can be severe, they usually clear up." The condition in the summer is often referred to as Reverse Seasonal Affective Disorder, and can also include heightened anxiety.
January 04, 2009
First Published: 00:21 IST(4/1/2009)
Last Updated: 00:25 IST(4/1/2009)
I had been feeling low the past few days and a friend suggested it was probably the weather getting me down. It’s well established that cold and sunless weather affects mood and leaves you feeling low. There’s even a clinical term to describe the condition—seasonal affective disorder—that pushes up Prozac and Calmpose sales in the winter months.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the fields of psychology and psychiatry, the terms depression or depressed refer to both expected and pathologically chronic or severe levels of sadness, perceived helplessness, disinterest, and other related emotions and behaviours.
Advice From C. Geraghty
From C. Geraghty, for About.com
Updated: November 29, 2007
A. These days if you mention “Winter Blues,” it is surprising if the result is not a conversation about Seasonal Affective Disorder (acronym “SAD”) or the use of full spectrum illumination to combat the lessening of light that we experience in the winter months. SAD is a legitimate mood disorder and should be treated accordingly. However, as your query intimates, there is more to the “winter blues” than the seasonal variation of light to the pineal gland.
Seasonal mood variations are believed to be related to light. An argument for this view is the effectiveness of bright-light therapy. SAD is measurably present at latitudes in the Arctic region, such as Finland (64º 00´N) where the rate of SAD is 9.5% Cloud cover may contribute to the negative effects of SAD.
 Diagnostic criteria
The Mayo Clinic describes three types of Seasonal Affective Disorder, each with its own set of symptoms. According to the American Psychiatric Association, for a diagnosis to qualify as SAD, it must meet four criteria: depressive episodes at a particular time of the year; remissions or mania/hypomania also at a characteristic time of year; these patterns must have lasted two years with no nonseasonal major depressive episodes during that same period; and these seasonal depressive episodes outnumber other depressive episodes throughout the patient's lifetime.
Another type of light therapy lampThere are many different treatments for classic (winter-based) seasonal affective disorder, including light therapies, medication, ionized-air administration, cognitive-behavioral therapy and carefully timed supplementation of the hormone melatonin.
Winter depression is a common slump in the mood of some inhabitants of most of the Nordic countries. It was first described by the 6th century Goth scholar Jordanes in his Getica wherein he described the inhabitants of Scandza (Scandinavia). Iceland, however, seems to be an exception. A study of more than 2000 people there found the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder and seasonal changes in anxiety and depression to be unexpectedly low in both sexes. The study's authors suggested that propensity for SAD may differ due to some genetic factor within the Icelandic population. A study of Canadians of wholly Icelandic descent also showed low levels of SAD. It has more recently been suggested that this may be attributed to the large amount of fish traditionally eaten by Icelandic people, 225 lb per person per year as opposed to about 50 in the US and Canada, rather than to genetics.
 Other countries
In the United States, a diagnosis of seasonal affective disorder was first proposed by Norman E. Rosenthal, MD in 1984. Rosenthal wondered why he became sluggish during the winter after moving from sunny South Africa to New York. He started experimenting increasing exposure to artificial light, and found this made a difference. In Alaska it has been established that there is a SAD rate of 8.9%, and an even greater rate of 24.9% for subsyndromal SAD. American science fiction-fantasy author Barbara Hambly had undiagnosed SAD for many years and speaks freely about her condition.
 SAD and Bipolar
Most people with SAD experience unipolar depression, but as many as 20% may have or may go on to develop a bipolar or manic-depressive disorder. It is important to discriminate the improved mood associated with recovery from the winter depression and a manic episode because there are important treatment differences. In these cases, persons with SAD may experience depression during the winter and hypomania in the summer.
See also: Neurobiology
Biological influences of depression are varied, but can include malnutrition, heredity, hormones, seasons, stress, illness, neurotransmitter malfunction, long-term exposure to dampness and mold and to aerosol exposure. There are also correlations between long term sleep difficulties and depression. Up to 90% of patients with depression are found to have sleep difficulties.
 As mechanism of adaptation
While a depressed mood is usually referred to (and perceived) as negative, it can sometimes be subtly beneficial in helping a person adapt to circumstance. For example, physical illness, such as influenza, can lead to feelings of psychological malaise and depression that seem, at first, only to compound an already unpleasant situation.
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Major depressive disorder
Classification and external resources
Vincent van Gogh's 1890 painting At Eternity's Gate
ICD-10 F32., F33.
Major depressive disorder (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or unipolar disorder) is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive low mood, low self-esteem, and loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities. The term "major depressive disorder" was selected by the American Psychiatric Association for this symptom cluster under mood disorders in the 1980 version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) classification, and has become widely used since. The general term depression is often used to describe the disorder, but as it is also used to describe a depressed mood, more precise terminology is preferred in clinical and research use. Major depression is a disabling condition which adversely affects a person's family, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health. In the United States, approximately 3.4% of people with major depression commit suicide, and up to 60% of all people who commit suicide have depression or another mood disorder.
Symptoms and signs
Major depression is a serious illness that affects a person's family, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health; its impact on functioning and well-being has been equated to that of chronic medical conditions such as diabetes.
The biopsychosocial model proposes that biological, psychological, and social factors all play a role to varying degrees in causing depression. The diathesis–stress model posits that depression results when a preexisting vulnerability, or diathesis, is activated by stressful life events. The preexisting vulnerability can be either genetic, implying an interaction between nature and nurture, or the result of past experience such as learned views of the world formed in childhood. These interactive models to understanding the causes of depression have gained empirical support. For example, a prospective, longitudinal study uncovered a moderating effect of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene on stressful life events in predicting depression. Specifically, depression may follow such events, but is more likely to in people with one or, even more so, two short alleles of the 5-HTT gene. A Swedish study estimated the heritability of depression (the degree to which individual differences in occurrence are associated with genetic differences) to be approximately 40% for women and 30% for men.
Main article: Biology of depression
Most antidepressants increase synaptic levels of serotonin, one of a group of neurotransmitters known as monoamines. Serotonin is hypothesized to help regulate other neurotransmitter systems; decreased serotonin activity may allow these systems to act in unusual and erratic ways. According to this "permissive hypothesis", depression arises when low serotonin levels promote low levels of norepinephrine, another monoamine neurotransmitter. Some antidepressants enhance the levels of norepinephrine directly, whereas others raise the levels of dopamine, a third monoamine neurotransmitter. These observations gave rise to the monoamine hypothesis of depression. In its contemporary formulation, the monoamine hypothesis postulates that a deficiency of certain neurotransmitters is responsible for the corresponding features of depression: "Norepinephrine may be related to alertness and energy as well as anxiety, attention, and interest in life; [lack of] serotonin to anxiety, obsessions, and compulsions; and dopamine to attention, motivation, pleasure, and reward, as well as interest in life." The proponents of this theory recommend the choice of an the antidepressant with mechanism of action that impact the most prominent symptoms. Anxious and irritable patients should be treated with SSRIs or norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and those experiencing a loss of energy and enjoyment of life with norepinephrine and dopamine enhancing drugs.
Schematic of a synapse between an axon of one neuron and a dendrite of another. Synapses are specialized gaps between neurons. Electrical impulses arriving at the axon terminal trigger release of packets of chemical messengers (neurotransmitters), which diffuse across the synaptic cleft to receptors on the adjacent dendrite temporarily affecting the likelihood that an electrical impulse will be triggered in the latter neuron. Once released the neurotransmitter is rapidly metabolised or pumped back into a neuron. Antidepressants influence the overall balance of these processes.In the past two decades, research has revealed multiple limitations of the monoamine hypothesis, and its explanatory inadequacy has been criticized within the psychiatric community. Intensive investigation has failed to find convincing evidence of a primary dysfunction of a specific monoamine system in patients with major depressive disorders. The medications tianeptine and opipramol have long been known to have antidepressant properties despite lacking any effect on the monoamine system. Experiments with pharmacological agents that cause depletion of monoamines have shown that this depletion does not cause depression in healthy people nor does it worsen symptoms in depressed patients—although an intact monoamine system is necessary for antidepressants to achieve therapeutic effectiveness. According to an essay published by the Public Library of Science, the monoamine hypothesis, already limited, has been further oversimplified when presented to the general public.
Depression may be related to the same brain mechanisms that control the cycles of sleep and wakefulness.Depression may be related to abnormalities in the circadian rhythm, or biological clock. The serotonergic system is least active during sleep and most active during wakefulness. Because of this relationship of sleep to the synaptic levels of serotonin, compounds that decrease serotonin levels impair sleep. Prolonged wakefulness due to sleep deprivation also activates serotonergic neurons, leading to processes similar to the therapeutic effect of antidepressants, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Depressed individuals can exhibit a significant lift in mood after a night of sleep deprivation. SSRIs may directly depend on the increase of central serotonergic neurotransmission for their therapeutic effect, the same system that impacts cycles of sleep and wakefulness.
Various aspects of personality and its development appear to be integral to the occurrence and persistence of depression. Although depressive episodes are strongly correlated with adverse events, a person's characteristic style of coping may be correlated with their resiliance. Additionally, low self-esteem and self-defeating or distorted thinking are related to depression. Depression may be less likely to occur, as well as quicker to remit, among those who are religious. It is not always clear which factors are causes or which are effects of depression; however, depressed persons who are able to make corrections in their thinking patterns often show improved mood and self-esteem.
Poverty and social isolation are associated with increased risk of psychiatric problems in general. Child abuse (physical, emotional, sexual, or neglect) is also associated with increased risk of developing depressive disorders later in life. Disturbances in family functioning, such as parental (particularly maternal) depression, severe marital conflict or divorce, death of a parent, or other disturbances in parenting are additional risk factors. In adulthood, stressful life events are strongly associated with the onset of major depressive episodes; a first episode is more likely to be immediately preceded by stressful life events than are recurrent ones.
Main article: Evolutionary approaches to depression
From the standpoint of evolutionary theory, major depression is hypothesized to, in some instances, increase an individual's ability to reproduce. Evolutionary approaches to depression and evolutionary psychology posit specific mechanisms by which depression may have been genetically incorporated into the human gene pool, accounting for the high heritability and prevalence of depression by proposing that certain components of depression are adaptations, such as the behaviors relating to attachment and social rank. Current behaviors can be explained as adaptations to regulate relationships or resources, although the result may be maladaptive in modern environments.
See also: List of rating scales for depression
A diagnostic assessment may be conducted by a general practitioner or by a psychiatrist or psychologist, who will record the person's current circumstances, biographical history and current symptoms, and a family medical history to see if other family members have suffered from a mood disorder, and discuss the person's alcohol and drug use. The assessment also includes a mental state examination, which is an assessment of the person's current mood and thought content, in particular the presence of themes of hopelessness or pessimism, self-harm or suicide, and an absence of positive thoughts or plans. Specialist mental health services are rare in rural areas, and thus diagnosis and management is largely left to primary care clinicians. This issue is even more marked in developing countries. Rating scales are not used to diagnose depression, but they provide an indication of the severity of symptoms for a time period, so a person who scores above a given cut-off point can be more thoroughly evaluated for a depressive disorder diagnosis. Several rating scales are used for this purpose. Screening programs have been advocated to improve detection of depression, but there is evidence that they do not improve detection rates, treatment, or outcome.
 DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria
The most widely used criteria for diagnosing depressive conditions are found in the American Psychiatric Association's revised fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), and the World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) which uses the name recurrent depressive disorder. The latter system is typically used in European countries, while the former is used in the US and many other non-European nations, and the authors of both have worked towards conforming one with the other.
 Major depressive episode
Main article: Major depressive episode
A major depressive episode is characterized by the presence of a severely depressed mood that persists for at least two weeks. Episodes may be isolated or recurrent and are categorized as mild (few symptoms in excess of minimum criteria), moderate, or severe (marked impact on social or occupational functioning). An episode with psychotic features—commonly referred to as psychotic depression—is automatically rated as severe. If the patient has had an episode of mania or markedly elevated mood, a diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made instead. Depression without mania is sometimes referred to as unipolar because the mood remains at one emotional state or "pole".
The DSM-IV-TR recognizes five further subtypes of MDD, called specifiers, in addition to noting the length, severity and presence of psychotic features:
Atypical depression is characterized by mood reactivity (paradoxical anhedonia) and positivity, significant weight gain or increased appetite (comfort eating), excessive sleep or sleepiness (hypersomnia), a sensation of heaviness in limbs known as leaden paralysis, and significant social impairment as a consequence of hypersensitivity to perceived interpersonal rejection.
Catatonic depression is a rare and severe form of major depression involving disturbances of motor behavior and other symptoms. Here the person is mute and almost stuporose, and either remains immobile or exhibits purposeless or even bizarre movements. Catatonic symptoms also occur in schizophrenia or in manic episodes, or may be caused by neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
Postpartum depression (Mild mental and behavioral disorders associated with the puerperium, not elsewhere classified in ICD-10) refers to the intense, sustained and sometimes disabling depression experienced by women after giving birth. Postpartum depression, which has incidence rate of 10–15% among new mothers, typically sets in within three months of labor, and lasts as long as three months.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a form of depression in which depressive episodes come on in the autumn or winter, and resolve in spring. The diagnosis is made if at least two episodes have occurred in colder months with none at other times, over a two-year period or longer.
To confer major depressive disorder as the most likely diagnosis, other potential diagnoses must be considered, including dysthymia, adjustment disorder with depressed mood or bipolar disorder. Dysthymia is a chronic, milder mood disturbance in which a person reports a low mood almost daily over a span of at least two years. The symptoms are not as severe as those for major depression, although people with dysthymia are vulnerable to secondary episodes of major depression (sometimes referred to as double depression). Adjustment disorder with depressed mood is a mood disturbance appearing as a psychological response to an identifiable event or stressor, in which the resulting emotional or behavioral symptoms are significant but do not meet the criteria for a major depressive episode. Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic-depressive disorder, is a condition in which depressive phases alternate with periods of mania or hypomania. Although depression is currently categorized as a separate disorder, there is ongoing debate because individuals diagnosed with major depression often experience some hypomanic symptoms, indicating a mood disorder continuum.
For a fuller discussion of standard, rarely used, and more experimental treatments, see Treatment for depression.
The three most common treatments for depression are psychotherapy, medication, and electroconvulsive therapy. Psychotherapy is the treatment of choice for people under 18, while electroconvulsive therapy is only used as a last resort. Care is usually given on an outpatient basis, while treatment in an inpatient unit is considered if there is a significant risk to self or others.
Psychotherapy can be delivered, to individuals or groups, by mental health professionals, including psychotherapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, counselors, and psychiatric nurses. With more complex and chronic forms of depression, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be used. In children and young people under 18, medication should only be offered in conjunction with a psychological therapy, such as CBT, interpersonal therapy, or family therapy. Psychotherapy has been shown to be effective in older people. Successful psychotherapy appears to reduce the recurrence of depression even after it has been terminated or replaced by occasional booster sessions.
Prescription antidepressants are as effective as psychotherapy, although more patients cease medication than cease psychotherapy, most likely due to side effects from the medication.
Amitriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant, so called because there are three rings in its molecular structure.Tricyclic antidepressants have more side effects than SSRIs and are usually reserved for the treatment of inpatients, for whom the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline, in particular, appears to be more effective.
 Pharmacological augmentation
A doctor may add a medication with a different mode of action to bolster the effect of an antidepressant in cases of treatment resistance. Medication with lithium salts has been used to augment antidepressant therapy in those who have failed to respond to antidepressants alone. Furthermore, lithium dramatically decreases the suicide risk in recurrent depression. Addition of a thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine may work as well as lithium, even in patients with normal thyroid function. Addition of atypical antipsychotics when the patient has not responded to an antidepressant is also known to increase the effectiveness of antidepressant drugs, albeit offset by increased side effects.
 Electroconvulsive therapy
Main article: Electroconvulsive therapy
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a procedure whereby pulses of electricity are sent through the brain via two electrodes, usually one on each temple, to induce a seizure while the patient is under a short general anaesthetic. Hospital psychiatrists may recommend ECT for cases of severe major depression which have not responded to antidepressant medication or, less often, psychotherapy or supportive interventions. ECT can have a quicker effect than antidepressant therapy and thus may be the treatment of choice in emergencies such as catatonic depression where the patient has stopped eating and drinking, or where a patient is severely suicidal. ECT is probably more effective than pharmacotherapy for depression in the immediate short-term, although a landmark community-based study found much lower remission rates in routine practice. Used on its own the relapse rate within the first six months is very high; early studies put the rate at around 50%, while a more recent controlled trial found rates of 84% even with placebos. The early relapse rate may be reduced by the use of psychiatric medications or further ECT (although the latter is not recommended by some authorities) but remains high. Common initial adverse effects from ECT include short and long-term memory loss, disorientation and headache. Although objective psychological testing shows memory disturbance after ECT has mostly resolved by one month post treatment, ECT remains a controversial treatment, and debate on the extent of cognitive effects and safety continues.
 Other treatments
Further information: Self-medication
St John's wort is available over-the-counter as a herbal remedy in some parts of the world; however, the evidence of its effectiveness for the treatment of major depression is varying and confusing. Its safety can be compromised by inconsistency in pharmaceutical quality and in the amounts of active ingredient in different preparations. Further, it interacts with numerous prescribed medicines including antidepressants, and it can reduce the effectiveness of hormonal contraception.
A 2008 meta analysis has found that behavioral interventions are effective at preventing new onset depression.
Major depressive episodes often resolve over time whether or not they are treated. Outpatients on a waiting list show a 10–15% reduction in symptoms within a few months, with approximately 20% no longer meeting the full criteria for a depressive disorder. The median duration of an episode has been estimated to be 23 weeks, with the highest rate of recovery in the first three months.
Depression is a major cause of morbidity worldwide. Lifetime prevalence varies widely, from 3% in Japan to 17% in the US. In most countries the number of people who would suffer from depression during their lives falls within an 8–12% range. In North America the probability of having a major depressive episode within a year-long period is 3–5% for males and 8–10% for females. Population studies have consistently shown major depression to about twice as common in women than in men, although it is unclear why this is so, and whether factors unaccounted for are contributing to this. The relative increase in occurrence is related to pubertal development rather than chronological age and reaches adult ratios between the ages of 15 and 18, and appears associated with psychosocial more than hormonal factors.
Major depression frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric problems. The 1990–92 National Comorbidity Survey (US) reports that 51% of those with major depression also suffer from lifetime anxiety. Anxiety symptoms can have a major impact on the course of a depressive illness, with delayed recovery, increased risk of relapse, greater disability and increased suicide attempts. American neuroendocrinologist Robert Sapolsky similarly argues that the relationship between stress, anxiety, and depression could be measured and demonstrated biologically. There are increased rates of alcohol and drug abuse and particularly dependence, and around a third of individuals diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder develop comorbid depression. Post-traumatic stress disorder and depression often co-occur.
Main article: History of depression
The Ancient Greek physician Hippocrates described a syndrome of melancholia as a distinct disease with particular mental and physical symptoms; he characterized all "fears and despondencies, if they last a long time" as being symptomatic of the ailment. It was a similar but far broader concept than today's depression; prominence was given to a clustering of the symptoms of sadness, dejection, and despondency, and often fear, anger, delusions and obsessions were included.
 Sociocultural aspects
See also: List of people with depression
American president Abraham Lincoln appears to have had at least two major depressive episodes.Historical figures were often reluctant to discuss or seek treatment for depression due to social stigma about the condition, or due to ignorance of diagnosis or treatments. Nevertheless, analysis or interpretation of letters, journals, artwork, writings or statements of family and friends of some historical personalities has led to the presumption that they may have had some form of depression. People who may have had depression include English author Mary Shelley, American-British writer Henry James, and American president Abraham Lincoln. Some well-known contemporary people with possible depression include Canadian songwriter Leonard Cohen and American playwright and novelist Tennessee Williams. Some pioneering psychologists, such as Americans William James and John B. Watson, dealt with their own depression.
Ayr shakes off the winter blues to give British racing a jump start for the year
By Bob Magill
ON A day when even the bookies had to give best to the weather, Ayr hosted the resumption of jumps racing in Britain after the recent cold snap had blanked meetings for a week. All credit to the Ayr executive for getting the meeting on at short notice, and there were some cracking prizes courtesy of sponsors Blue Square, but the 1,600 hardy spectators must have wondered if it was worth the candle in gale force winds and freezing rain.
YEAR ENDER 2008
Ministry of Earth Sciences
Winter fog — a health and environmental hazard
Tuesday, December 30, 2008
By By B. Ghauri
Every winter satellite images show a dense fog belt over northeastern India extended to northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. Winter fog thoroughly disrupts all human activities in the affected areas of the sub-continent. Low visibility causes multiple accidents, cancellation of air flights and delays in road and railway transport. Fog affects human health as the particulates’ load increases during fog episode due to inversion and low dispersion. Therefore, depression, respiratory and heart ailment and other problems have been observed to increase during the episode. Similarly increasing aerosol load of the atmosphere and reduced insulation can seriously harm agricultural produce and the economic loss to the region can be immense.
By Timothy Egan Published: January 8, 2009
PORT ANGELES, Washington: MEANWHILE
Who should take a statin?Apple's long-awaited shift on musicA cuddly welcome for DaschleBut this year, I've decided to fight lethargy with logic, to welcome the new president, the babies just born, to see something other than closure, dormancy and loss in the annual dark season.